Companions

Companion Planting Guide

(linked page from blog article)

Asparagus

  • Can be planted with dill, coriander, carrots, tomatoes, parsley, basil, comfrey and marigolds.
  • Avoid planting onions, garlic and potatoes nearby.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

  • Good companion for tomatoes – improves growth and flavor.
  • Can also plant with peppers, oregano, and asparagus.
  • Basil can be helpful in repelling thrips, flies and mosquitoes.
  • Do not plant near rue or sage.

 Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae)

  • A fresh leaf bay leaf in each storage container of beans or grains will deter weevils and moths.
  • Sprinkle dried leaves with other deterrent herbs (bay leaves, cayenne pepper, tansy and peppermint.) in the garden as a natural insecticide.

Beans

  • Beans enrich the soil with nitrogen fixed form the air, improving the conditions for whatever you plant after the beans are finished.
  • Good to plant with carrots, celery, chard, corn, eggplant, peas, potatoes, brassica, beets, radish, strawberries and cucumbers.
  • Beans are especially helpful for heavy nitrogen users like corn and grains, replacing the nitrogen used by those plants.
  • Summer savory deters bean beetles and improves growth and flavor.
  • Keep beans away from alliums (e.g., onions, leeks and garlic).

Bee Balm (Mondara)

  • Plant with tomatoes to improve growth and flavor.
  • Great for attracting bees and other beneficial insects.

Borage (Borago officinalis)

  • Self-seeding annual.
  • Edible flowers.
  • Plant with tomatoes, squash, strawberries and most plants.
  • Deters tomato hornworms and cabbage worms.
  • One of the best bee and wasp attracting plants.
  • Adds trace minerals to the soil and a good addition the compost pile.
  • The leaves contain vitamin C and are rich in calcium, potassium and mineral salts.
  • Borage may benefit any plant it is growing next to via increasing resistance to pests and disease.
  • Makes nice mulch for most plants.
  • Borage enhances the flavor and yield of strawberries.
  • Plant near tomatoes to improve growth and disease resistance.

Brassica

  • Benefit from chamomile, peppermint, dill, sage and rosemary.
  • Avoid planting with mustards, nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, etc.).

Broccoli

  • Plant with basil, bush beans, cucumber, dill, garlic, hyssop, lettuce, marigold, mint, nasturtium, onion, potato, radish, rosemary, sage, thyme and tomato.
  • Celery, onions and potatoes improve broccoli’s flavor when planted near it.
  • Broccoli needs plenty of calcium. Pair it with plants that need little calcium such as nasturtiums and beets. Put the nasturtiums right under the broccoli plants.
  • Herbs such as rosemary, dill and sage help repel pests with their aroma.
  • Do not plant with grapes, strawberries, mustard or rue.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

  • Celery improves growth and health.
  • Clover interplanted with cabbage has been shown to reduce the native cabbage aphid and cabbage worm populations.
  • Plant chamomile with cabbage to improve growth and flavor.
  • Do not plant with strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, rue, grapes, lettuce and pole beans.

Caraway (Carum carvi)

  • Good for loosening compacted soil with its deep roots – plant next to shallow rooted crops.
  • Plant with strawberries.
  • The flowers attract a number of beneficial insects especially the tiny parasitic wasps.
  • Do not plant near dill or fennel.

Carrots (Daucus carota)

  • Plant with leaf lettuce, onions and tomatoes.
  • Do not plant with dill or parsnips.
  • Flax can be helpful planted near to carrots.
  • Tomato plants may stunt the growth of your carrots but the carrots will still taste good.

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

  • Deters flea beetles, aphids, Japanese beetles, squash bugs, ants, weevils and mice.

Celery (Apium graveolens)

  • Plant with beans, cabbage family, leek, onion, spinach and tomato.
  • Plant with cosmos, daisies and snapdragons.
  • Do not plant with corn, potatoes or aster flowers.

Chamomile

  • Useful annual it improves the flavor of cabbages, cucumbers and onions.
  • Host to beneficial – hoverflies and wasps.
  • Accumulates calcium, potassium and sulfur, later returning them to the soil.
  • Increases oil production from herbs.
  • Leave some flowers unpicked and it will reseed itself.
  • Chamomile is one of the most widely used flowers for herbal tea.

Swiss chard

  • Plant with beans, cabbage family, tomato, onion and roses.
  • Don’t grow chard near cucurbits, melons, corn or herbs.

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

  • Companion plant to radishes, lettuce and broccoli for improved growth and flavor.
  • Keeps aphids off lettuce and deters slugs.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)

  • Improves growth and flavor of carrots and tomatoes.
  • Helps apples, carrots, tomatoes, brassica (broccoli, cabbage, mustard, etc.) and many others.
  • Help to keep aphids away from tomatoes, mums and sunflowers.
  • Chives may drive away Japanese beetles and carrot rust fly.
  • Planted among apple trees it helps prevent scab and among roses it prevents black spot.
  • A tea of chives may be used on cucumbers and gooseberries to prevent downy and powdery mildew.
  • Avoid planting near beans and peas.

Chrysanthemum

  • Kills root nematodes.
  • Its flowers have been used as botanical pesticides for centuries.
  • White flowering chrysanthemums repel Japanese beetles.

Collard greens (Brassica oleracea)

  • Plant with basil, beans, cucumbers, dill, garlic, hyssop, lettuce, marigolds, mint, nasturtiums, onions, potatoes, radishes, rosemary, sage and thyme.
  • Do not plant near grapes, rue and tansy.

Comfrey (Symphytum × uplandicum)

  • Accumulates calcium, phosphorous and potassium.
  • Comfrey is beneficial to avocado and most other fruit trees.
  • Traditional medicinal plant.
  • Good trap crop for slugs.
  • Excellent compost activator and foliage spray.

Coriander (Cilantro)

  • The leaves of this plant are Cilantro. When left to flower and go to seed the dried seeds are Coriander.
  • Repels aphids, spider mites and potato beetle.
  • A tea from this can be used as a spray for spider mites.
  • Partners for coriander are anise, caraway, potatoes and dill.

Corn (Maize)

  • Plant with Amaranth, beans, cucumber, lamb’s quarters, melons, morning glory, parsley, peas, potato, pumpkins, soybeans, squash and sunflowers.
  • A classic example is to grow climbing beans up corn while inter-planting pumpkins or other squash. The corn provides a natural support for the beans, pumpkins smother the weeds and helps corn roots retain moisture.
  • Corn is a heavy feeder and the beans fix nitrogen from air into the soil. When the bean plants die back they return the nitrogen to the soil.
  • Keep corn away from celery and tomatoes by at least 20 feet.

Cucumbers

  • Cucumbers grow well with corn and beans. The three plants like the same conditions: warmth, rich soil and plenty of moisture. The cucumbers will use the corn plants as supports.
  • Cucumbers also do well with peas, beets, radishes and carrots.
  • Radishes are a good deterrent against cucumber beetles.
  • Dill planted with cucumbers helps by attracting beneficial predators.
  • Nasturtium improves growth and flavor.
  • Do not plant with sage, potatoes or rue near cucumbers.

Dahlia

  • This beautiful annual with large flowers repels nematodes.

Dill

  • Improves the growth and health of cabbage.
  • Companion plant for lettuce.
  • Attracts hoverflies and predatory wasps.
  • Repels aphids and spider mites to some degree.
  • Dill goes well with lettuce, onions, cabbage, sweet corn and cucumbers.
  • Don’t plant near tomatoes as it can attract the tomato horn worm.
  • Do not plant near carrots, caraway or lavender.

Eggplant

  • Plant with amaranth, beans, peas, spinach, tarragon, thyme and marigold.
  • Grows well with peppers.
  • Avoid planting fennel near eggplant.

Elderberry

  • A spray made from the leaves can be used against aphids, carrot root fly, cucumber beetles and peach tree borers.
  • Put branches and leaves in mole runs to repel the moles.

Flax

  • Annual from 1-4 feet tall with blue or white flowers that readily self-sows.
  • Plant with carrots, and potatoes.
  • May offend the Colorado potato bug.

Four O Clocks

  • VERY POISONOUS TO HUMANS AND ANIMALS. USE WITH CAUTION IF YOU HAVE CHILDREN OR PETS!
  • Draws Japanese beetles like a magnet. The foliage is pure poison to them and they die very quickly.
  • Beautiful annual bushy plant growing between 2-3 feet high.

Garlic

  • Plant near roses to repel aphids.
  • It also benefits apple trees, pear trees, cucumbers, peas, lettuce and celery.
  • Plant under peach trees to help repel borers.
  • Garlic accumulates sulfur: a naturally occurring fungicide which will help in the garden with disease prevention.
  • Garlic is systemic in action as it is taken up by the plants through their pores and when garlic tea is used as a soil drench it is also taken up by the plant roots.
  • Repels moths, Japanese beetles, root maggots, snails, and carrot root fly.
  • Researchers have observed that time-released garlic capsules planted at the bases of fruit trees actually kept deer away.
  • Concentrated garlic sprays have been observed to repel and kill whiteflies, aphids and fungus gnats among others with as little as a 6-8% concentration.
  • Garlic can also be used as a natural wormer for pets and farm animals. Fleas and ticks hate it too!
  • Widely used health food and medicinal plant.

Geraniums

  • Repels cabbage worms and Japanese beetles.
  • ·Companion plant grapes, roses, corn, tomatoes, peppers and cabbage.
  • Geraniums help to distract beet leafhoppers, carrier of the curly top virus.

Grapes

  • Plants beneficial to grapes include basil, beans, geraniums, oregano, clover, hyssop peas, and blackberries.
  • Keep radishes and cabbage away from grapes.
  • Planting clover increases the soil fertility for grapes.
  • Plant chives nearby to repel aphids.

Horseradish

  • Plant in containers in the potato patch to keep away Colorado potato bugs. Horseradish increases the disease resistance of potatoes.
  • There are some very effective insect sprays that can be made with the root.
  • Also repels Blister beetles.

Horehound

  • A member of the mint family, the tiny flowers attract Braconid and Icheumonid wasps, and Tachnid and Syrid flies.
  • The larval forms of these insects parasitize or otherwise consume many other insect pests.
  • It grows where many others fail to thrive and can survive harsh winters.
  • Blooms over a long season, attracting beneficial insects almost as long as you are likely to need them.
  • Stimulates and aids fruiting in tomatoes and peppers.

Hyssop

  • Companion plant to cabbage and grapes, repels cabbage moths and flea beetles.
  • Do not plant near radishes.

Kohlrabi

  • Can be planted with cucumber, onion, chives and beets.
  • Do not plant with pole beans, pepper, strawberry or tomatoes.

Lamium

  • This will repel potato bugs.

Larkspur

  • POISONOUS TO HUMANS!
  • Attracts Japanese beetles, which die soon after eating.

Lavender

  • Repels fleas and moths. Feeds many nectar eating and beneficial insects.
  • Lavenders can protect nearby plants from insects such as whitefly, and lavender planted under and near fruit trees can deter codling moth.

Leeks

  • Plant near apple trees, carrots, celery and onions to improve their growth.
  • Repels carrot flies.
  • Don’t plant near legumes.

Lemon balm

  • Sprinkled throughout the garden in an herbal powder mixture, this works to deter many bugs, including squash bugs.

Lettuce

  • Plant with beets, broccoli, bush beans, pole beans, carrots, dill, cucumbers, onion, radish and strawberries. It grows happily in the shade under young sunflowers, or between tomato plants.
  • Don’t plant with cabbage.

Lovage

  • Flavor similar to celery, improves the flavor and health of most plants.
  • A large plant, providing good habitat for ground beetles.

Marigolds

  • Keeps soil free of harmful nematodes and discourages many insects.
  • Plant the scented variety throughout the garden.
  • Drawback – marigolds do attract spider mites and slugs.
  • French marigold has roots that exude a substance which spreads in their immediate vicinity killing nematodes, also help to deter whiteflies when planted around tomatoes and can be used in greenhouses for the same purpose. Whiteflies dislike the smell of marigolds.
  • Do not plant next to beans.
  • Mexican marigold is the most powerful of the insect repelling marigolds and may also
  • Keep away from beans and cabbage.

Marjoram

  • As a companion plant it improves the flavor of vegetables and herbs. Sweet marjoram is the most commonly grown type.

Melon

  • Plant with corn, pumpkin, radish and squash.
  • Other companion plants for melons are marigold, which deters beetles, nasturtium, which deters bugs and beetles and oregano which provides general pest protection.

Mint

  • Mint is a very useful plant, but it is also invasive so plant in a bucket to contain its spread.
  • Deters white cabbage moths, ants, rodents, flea beetles, fleas, aphids and improves the health of cabbage and tomatoes.
  • Use cuttings as mulch around members of the brassica family.
  • Attracts hover flies and predatory wasps.

Mole Plant (castor bean plant)

  • POISONOUS TO HUMANS
  • Deters moles and mice. Drop a seed of this in mole runs to drive them away.

Morning Glory

  • Fast growing annual vine which attracts hover flies.

Nasturtiums

  • Companion plant for radishes, cabbage family plants (cabbage, collards, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, broccoli and mustard).
  • Deters aphids, squash bugs, and striped pumpkin beetles.
  • Plant as a barrier around tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, and under fruit trees.
  • Deters wooly aphids, whiteflies, cucumber beetles and other pests of the Cucurbit family.
  • One of the best plants for attracting predatory insects.
  • The leaves, flowers and seeds of nasturtiums are all edible.

Stinging Nettles

  • The flowers attract bees.
  • Steep the leaves in water and use to spray your plants. It will improve growth and increase disease resistance. Allow the liquid to mature for an excellent feed. Adding comfrey to the liquid for an extra boost.

Onions

  • Planting chamomile and summer savory with onions improves their flavor.
  • Other companion plants are carrot, leek, beets, kohlrabi, strawberries, brassicas, dill, lettuce and tomatoes.
  • Onions planted with strawberries help the berries fight disease.
  • Keep onions away from peas and asparagus.

Opal Basil

  • Annual herb said to repel hornworms.
  • Like the other basil it also does well with peppers, oregano, asparagus, tomatoes and petunias.
  • Keep away from rue and sage.

Oregano

  • Can be planted with most crops but it is especially good for cabbage.
  • Plant near broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower to repel cabbage butterfly.
  • Plant with cucumbers to repel cucumber beetle.

Parsley

  • Companion plant for asparagus, carrot, chives, onions, roses and tomato.
  • Use as a tea to ward off asparagus beetles.
  • Attracts hoverflies.
  • Keep away from mint.

Parsnips

  • Plant them with bush bean, garlic, onion, pea, pepper, potato and radish.

Peas

  • Peas fix nitrogen in the soil. Plant next to corn which is a heavy nitrogen user.
  • Companion plants for peas are bush beans, bole beans, carrots, celery, chicory, corn, cucumber, eggplant, parsley, early potato, radish, spinach, strawberry, sweet pepper, tomatoes and turnips.

Peppermint

  • Good for repelling white cabbage moth, aphids and flea beetles.
  • Attracts bees and other beneficials.

Bell Peppers

  • Plant peppers near tomatoes, parsley, basil, geraniums, marjoram, lovage, petunia and carrots.
  • Onions make an excellent companion plant for peppers.
  • Don’t plant near fennel or kohlrabi or near apricot trees.

Hot pepper

  • Chili peppers prevent root rot.
  • Teas made from hot peppers can be useful as insect sprays.
  • Hot peppers like to be near cucumbers, eggplant, escarole, tomato, okra, Swiss chard and squash. Herbs to plant near them include: basils, oregano, parsley and rosemary.
  • Plant away from beans, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts or fennel.

Penny Royal

  • HIGHLY TOXIC TO CATS – Don’t plant if you have cats. Do not rub it on their skin!
  • Repels fleas.
  • Its crushed leaves rubbed onto skin will repel chiggers, flies, gnats, mosquitoes and ticks.

Petunia

  • Repels the asparagus beetle, leafhoppers, some aphids, tomato worms, Mexican bean beetles and general garden pests.
  • A good companion plant to tomatoes, but plant throughout the garden.
  • The leaves can be used in a tea to make a potent bug spray.

Potatoes

  • Companion plants for potatoes are bush bean, members of the cabbage family, carrot, celery, corn, dead nettle, flax, horseradish, marigold, peas, petunia, onion and marigold.
  • Putting comfrey leaves in with your potato sets at planting time will help to prevent scab.
  • Horseradish, planted at the side of the potato patch, provides general protection.
  • Alyssum makes perfect living mulch.
  • Don’t plant potatoes near asparagus, cucumber, kohlrabi, parsnip, pumpkin, rutabaga, squash family, sunflower, turnip, tomato and fennel.

Pumpkin

  • Plant pumpkins near corn, melon and squash.
  • Marigold deters beetles. Nasturtium deters bugs and beetles.
  • Plant oregano for general pest protection.

Purslane

  • Edible weed, use as ground cover in the corn patch.

Radish

  • Companion plants for radishes are beet, bush beans, pole beans, carrots, chervil, cucumber, lettuce, melons, nasturtium, parsnip, peas, spinach and members of the squash family.
  • Radishes may protect squash from squash borers.
  • Radishes are a deterrent against cucumber beetles and rust flies.
  • Chervil and nasturtium improve radish growth and flavor.
  • Plan around corn and allow them go to seed – will help fight corn borers.
  • Radishes will lure leafminers away from spinach. The damage the leafminers do to radish leaves does not stop the radish roots from growing.
  • Don’t plant near hyssop, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and turnips.

Rhubarb

  • A good companion to all brassicas.
  • Rhubarb protects beans against black fly.

Rosemary

  • Companion plants for cabbage, beans, carrots and sage.
  • Repels cabbage moths, bean beetles, and carrot flies.

Rue

  • Deters aphids, fish moths, flea beetle, onion maggot, slugs, snails, flies and Japanese beetles in roses and raspberries.
  • Companion plants for rue are roses, fruits (in particular figs), raspberries and lavender.
  • Don’t plant with cucumbers, cabbage, basil or sage.

Rye (Secale cereale)

  • Use of mow-killed grain rye as a mulch to prevent weed germination without causing harm to transplanted vegetables.

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

  • Companion plant for broccoli, cauliflower, rosemary, cabbage, and carrots to deter cabbage moths, beetles, black flea beetles and carrot flies.
  • Do not plant near cucumbers, onions or rue.
  • The flowers attract many beneficial insects.

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea)

  • Companion plant for peas and beans to provide shade for the spinach.
  • Plant with cabbage, cauliflower, celery, eggplant, onion, peas, strawberries and fava bean.
  • Save space by planting with squash. By the time squash plants start to get big the spinach is ready to bolt.

Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum)

  • Bushy perennial with a lemon scent when crushed or rubbed.
  • Plant with cabbage.

Soy Bean

  • Adds nitrogen to the soil making them a good companion for corn.
  • Repels chinch bugs and Japanese beetles.

Summer Squash and Zucchini

  • Plant with beans, corn, cucumbers, icicle radishes, melon, mint, onions and pumpkins.
  • Borage deters worms, and  improves the growth and flavor.
  • Marigolds deter beetles from the squash.
  • Nasturtium deters squash bugs and beetles.
  • Oregano provides general pest protection.
  • Don’t plant squash near potatoes.

Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas)

  • Plant with aromatic herbs such as dill, thyme, oregano etc.
  • Summer savory helps to repel the sweet potato weevil.
  • They do well with root crops, bush beans and regular potatoes.
  • Alyssum makes perfect living mulch for them.

Strawberry

  • Plant near beans, borage, lettuce, onions, spinach and thyme.
  • Keep away from cabbage, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower and kohlrabi.
  • Plant borage nearby to strengthen resistance to insects and disease.
  • A border of thyme deters worms.

Summer savory

  • Plant with beans and onions to improve growth and flavor.
  • This companion plant deters cabbage moths, Mexican bean beetles, sweet potato weevil and black aphids.
  • Honey bees love it when it’s flowering.

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

  • Plant sunflowers to keep aphids under control. Ants herd the aphids onto the sunflowers where they do no harm.
  • Sunflowers also attract hummingbirds that eat whiteflies.

Sweet Alyssum (Lobularia maritima)

  • Alyssum flowers attract hoverflies whose larva devours aphids.
  • The blooms draw bees to pollinate early blossoming fruit trees.

Tansy

  • TOXIC TO ANIMALS!
  • Deters flying insects, Japanese beetles, striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs, ants and mice!
  • A bunch of tansy leaves hung up indoors acts as a fly repellent.
  • Use clippings as a mulch as needed.

Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)

  • Plant throughout the garden to deter a wide variety of pests.
  • Will enhance growth and flavor of vegetables.

Thyme

  • Deters cabbage worms.
  • Woolly thyme or creeping thyme makes a good ground cover, while reducing weeds and retaining soil moisture.

 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

  • Tomatoes have many allies: asparagus, basil, beans, celery, chives, cucumbers, garlic,  lettuce, marigolds, mint, nasturtiums, onions, parsley, peas and peppers.
  • Plant basil nearby to repel flies and mosquitoes; and to improve growth and flavor.
  • Bee balm, chives and mint also improve health and flavor.
  • Borage deters tomato worm and improves growth and flavor.
  • Dill, until mature, improves growth and health but mature dill retards tomato growth.
  • Don’t plant near corn. Corn and tomato are attacked by the same worm.
  • Kohlrabi stunts tomato growth.
  • Keep potatoes and tomatoes apart as they both can contaminate each other with blight.
  • Don’t plant near apricot, dill, fennel, cabbage and cauliflower.

Turnip (Brassica rapa)

  • Peas are good companion plants for turnips, fixing nitrogen in the soil.
  • Do not plant potatoes, radishes or other root vegetables near your turnips. These vegetables will compete for nutrients with the turnips and reduce crop size and yield.

Wormwood (Artemesia)

  • TOXIC to animals.
  • An excellent deterrent to most insects.
  • Don’t plant wormwood with peas or beans.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

  • Has insect repelling qualities and is an excellent natural fertilizer.
  • Attracts predatory wasps and ladybugs.

Zinnia

  • Attract hummingbirds that eat whiteflies.
  • All zinnias attract bees and other insect pollinators.
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